A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Here we report hydrogels made of polymers forming networks via ionic and covalent crosslinks. The unzipped ionic crosslinks ans internal damage, which heals by re-zipping.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels – Semantic Scholar

Zhao, but the demonstration that one can achieve similar mechanical performance with a common biomedical polymer is a substantial advance. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Ad Drug Delivery Rev. In addition to biomedical applications, the same technique could be applied to printing a variety of soft but tough structural materials, he says, such as actuators for soft robotic systems. High-water-content mouldable hydrogels by mixing clay and a dendritic molecular binder.

Large strain hysteresis and mullinsV effect of tough double-network hydrogels. An alginate chain consists of mannuronic acid M unit and guluronic acid G unitarranged in blocks rich in G units, blocks rich in M units, and blocks of alternating G and M units.


Furthermore, the network of covalent crosslinks preserves the memory of the initial state, so that much of the large deformation is removed upon unloading.

The covalent crosslinker, MBAA, was fixed at 0. Despite the exciting achievements, much of the property space of hydrogels remains uncharted. The process might lead to injectable materials for delivering drugs or cells into the body; scaffolds for regenerating load-bearing tissues; or tough but flexible actuators for future robots, the researchers say.

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Maldonado-Codina C, Efron N. A model of fracture of double network gels. After strehchable pair of G blocks unzip, the high stress shifts to the neighboring pair of G blocks and causes them to unzip also Supplementary Fig.

J Am Ceram Soc. Vlassak1 and Zhigang Suo 1, 5.

When the gel is stretched, the glassy domains remain intact, while the ionic crosslinks break and dissipate energy. Showing of extracted citations. Here we demonstrate extremely stretchable and tough hydrogels by mixing two types of crosslinked polymers: The ionic crosslinker, CaSO4, was fixed at 0.

On the basis of our experimental findings, we discuss mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

Haraguchi K, Takehisa T. J Mater Sci Mater Med. The relatively low fracture energy of a hydrogel of a single network with covalent crosslinks is understood in terms of the Lake-Thomas model [ 8 ]. Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery.


When we cut a notch into the gel Fig. Such anf is a key feature of natural bodily tissues that need to withstand a variety of forces and impacts. When the gel is stretched, the short-chain network sretchable and dissipates energy [ 20 ].

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Each test was conducted hydrogela pulling an unnotched sample to rupture. The model highlights the synergy of the two toughening mechanisms: Hydrogels of superior stiffness, toughness, hydtogels and recoverability will improve the performance in these applications, and likely open up new areas of application for this class of materials.

The new 3-D printing process could eventually make it possible to produce tough hydrogel structures artificially for repair or replacement of load-bearing tissues, such as cartilage.

Hydrogels, defined by water molecules encased in rubbery polymer networks that provide shape and structure, are similar to natural tissues such as cartilage, which is used gough the body as a natural shock absorber. The scope of applications, however, is often severely limited by the mechanical behavior of hydrogels [ 5 ].

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